It all began by Julius Caesar who was dictator from 49 to 44 B.C. Various dynasties succeeded on the imperial throne of Rome , the Giulio Claudia was the earliest one that started with Octavian Augustus in 27 B.C. and ended with the death of Nero in 68 A.D. In14 A.D. Tiberius, Augustus's adopted son, born of a previous marriage of his wife Livia and his patrician cousin Claudius Nero, succeeded Augustus after he died. Tiberius died in 37 and he had chosen as his successor his nephew Caligula, son of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder.
His brief government (37-41) was characterized by acts of repression against his enemies and the lack of consideration of Senate, manifested among other things, by naming as Senator his own horse. He died victim of a conspiracy during the Augustali parties in 41 A.D.
Claudius ascended to the throne but he had always avoided politics and he seemed not to be able because of his shy character apparently weak. His empire was dotted with a vast web of intrigue. Also Claudius had a legitimate son, British, by his first wife Messalina. Afterward he married his niece Agrippina, who had already had a son, Nero. In 54 A.D. , Agrippina, to favor the rise of his son, decided to kill her husband by poisoning him and plotted so that the Senate would remove British; so Nero was proclaimed emperor. He ascended to the throne when he was just seventeen and the sources describe his first five years of government as happy years: was definitely not that profligate tyrant described by historians, he was definitely a man exaggerated and theatrical in behavior, but not a wanton and cruel man. He was lucky enough to have beside him Seneca as tutor and, under his influence, and his teachings, tried his hand at music, he loved literature, sports competitions and entertainment circus; he really loved Poppea his beautiful and very smart second wife. But over the years, under the oppressive and not disinterested protection of his mother Agrippina, Nero began to suffer. He suffers to be forced to deal with non-confidential things and having to leave aside his artistic and creative soul. He suffers to the point of ordering the killing of the his same mother.
It haunts him forever.
In 64 A.D.much of Rome was destroyed by a huge fire that the ancient historiography reported to have been ordered by Nero himself to make space for the construction of his great palace, the Domus Aurea, an urban villa built by the princeps in the heart of Rome. His government and his policy that we could define "populist",antagonized the senatorial nobility, led him to suicide in 68 A.D. after nearly 14 years of reign when he was 30 years old.